Dealing with awkward subtitle problems in Handbrake

I know very little about Handbrake; this is just some notes on what I personally do to reduce my confusion about why subtitles aren’t being ripped properly and manually fixing that, but I almost certainly can’t answer any questions about issues you might be having! This is just here in the hope that it might be useful to someone…

I’ve been on a long-running project to rip some of our DVDs to network attached storage, so that playing them is a much more pleasant experience: we can then easily play any of our DVDs around the flat without suffering cute-but-unusable DVD menus, condescending anti-piracy warnings or trashy trailers. With some DVDs that are already quite poor quality I’ll just image the disk and copy the ISO to the NAS, but in most cases I use Handbrake to transcode just the titles I want from the DVD using a codec with rather better compression than MPEG-2. There’s inevitably a loss of quality doing this transcoding, of course, but in most cases I don’t mind.

DVD Subtitles

One slightly vexing issue that sometimes comes up when doing this is what to do about the subtitle tracks on the DVD. For plenty of films or TV shows there aren’t any points at which you’d expect a subtitle to be shown, so you don’t need to worry about them. However, plenty of our DVDs do have brief sections in foreign languages, for example, that you’d expect to be subtitled.

There are various choices about how you can handle these when ripping, but I prefer what’s really the option that loses most information: “burning in” any subtitles that are there for the purposes of translating foreign language sections into English or are added for comic effect. “Burning in” these images from a subtitle track means that you’re overlaying the images before the source video is transcoded, so you can’t remove those subtitles or switch them to other languages afterwards. Obviously lots of people prefer not to burn in the subtitles for that reason, but I tend to do this because it means I’m not subject to the vagaries of how different video players handle subtitles, and these rips are only for my own personal use anyway.

As well as “burning in” subtitles, another concept you might need to know about is of “forced subtitles”. Any subtitles in a given subtitle track might be marked as “forced” – this is used to tell the DVD player to display these even if the person hasn’t chosen to see all subtitles from a particular subtitle track – the intended use of this is exactly for brief sections of foreign languages in films, as I understand it.

In most cases, what works fine in Handbrake for what I want to do is to use the “Foreign Audio Search” option in the “Subtitle List” tab, selecting “Burned In” and then guessing whether to tick the “Forced Subtitles Only” box or not – generally I’ll leave that unchecked, unless when I look at the list of available subtitles (under “Add”) there’s only one English language subtitle track, in which case it’s probably forcing subtitles for any foreign language sections that are subtitled. This option should look through all the subtitle tracks for ones that appear less than 10% of the time, look for forced subtitles, and make a sensible choice about what to use: the Handbrake documentation explains this.

However, there are various ways this can go wrong – the “Foreign Audio Search” option sometimes makes the wrong choice in peculiar ways – e.g. I’ve seen it pick the right track when you’re just ripping one chapter from a title, but the wrong one when you’ve selected all the chapters (!). Also, there’s just very little consistency in how DVD producers choose whether to mark subtitles as forced.

When it goes wrong, here’s the method I use to manually pick the right subtitle track to burn in – essentially this is to do the “Foreign Audio Search” scan on just one chapter that I know both has audio that should and should not be subtitled, look through the “Activity Log” to see the results of that scan, and then manually select the right subtitle track based on that.

Examples

To step through that in more detail, here’s what I’d do:

  • Select from the “Subtitle List” tab the “Foreign Audio Search” option, and add that to the subtitles list. It doesn’t matter what options you choose, since we’re just adding this to get the results of the search into the activity log.
  • Find a chapter in the title you want to rip that has some audio you’d want to have subtitles for, and some that you don’t want to be subtitled. (You can select multiple chapters to achieve this if you want – the point of just choosing a small number of chapters is only to make the scan quicker.) I’d normally do this by (a) knowing a bit of the film with such audio and (b) finding that in bit of the film in Totem, which conveniently shows the title and chapter number in the window title.
  • Select just those chapters to rip,  add them to the queue
  • Start encoding
  • Open the activity log window
  • Once the “subtitle scan” pass has completed (it should be the first thing that Handbrake does) scroll up in the activity log to find the lines that look something like this:

[13:35:12] Subtitle track 0 (id 0x20bd) ‘English’: 87 hits (0 forced)
[13:35:12] Subtitle track 1 (id 0x21bd) ‘English’: 89 hits (0 forced)
[13:35:12] Subtitle track 2 (id 0x22bd) ‘English’: 6 hits (0 forced)

  • That means that subtitle track 2 is the right one, because there are subtitles for only some of the audio – the other two probably have subtitles for every line of dialogue, even if it’s in English. So, now we want to set up Handrake to rip the complete title but with that subtitle track added manually:
  • Remove the “Foreign Audio Search” option from the subtitle list.
  • Click “Add”  in the subtitle list tab, and select subtitle track 3 (n.b. not 2, since the graphical user interface (GUI) for Handbrake numbers subtitle tracks starting at 1, not 0.) Make sure you don’t select “Forced Subtitles Only” since the subtitles on that track aren’t forced (see “0 forced” in the output above).  (I would also select “Burn in” whenever adding a subtitle track manually like this, for the reasons discussed above – but you might well have different views about that.)
  • Then select all the chapters of the title, add the title to the queue and rip it as normal.

As other examples of things you might see in that list of “hits” in the results of the foreign audio search pass, consider the following:

[16:57:06] Subtitle track 0 (id 0x20bd) ‘English’: 77 hits (0 forced)
[16:57:06] Subtitle track 1 (id 0x21bd) ‘English’: 78 hits (0 forced)
[16:57:06] Subtitle track 14 (id 0x2ebd) ‘English’: 8 hits (8 forced)

In this example, it happens that the subtitles are “forced”, but it’s still clear that track 14 (0-based) is the one which just has the subtitles for the foreign language section, so I’d add track 15 (14 +1) manually in the GUI as above – and in this case it doesn’t matter whether you selected “Forced Subtitles Only” or not, since all of the subtitles on that track appear to be forced.

As a final example, you might see output like this:

[18:23:55] Subtitle track 0 (id 0x20bd) ‘English’: 92 hits (11 forced)

In that example there’s a single English subtitle track, which marks some subtitles as “forced” to indicate that those are for foreign language audio. In that case, in the GUI I would manually add subtitle track 1 (0 + 1) but would have to select the “Force Subtitles Only” option to avoid getting subtitles for everything.

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